# 13. Python & Batch: Python Calculator, Programmable Source & Filter

## 13.1. Introduction

ParaView has three filters that give a user access to python math functions as well as the underlying VTK library. These are the Python Calculator, the Programmable Source and Filter. This tutorial explains both.

## 13.2. Python Calculator

The Python Calculator allows a user to apply calculations that are available in Python. These include such functions as get volume of cells, get area of cells, get the cross product, dot product, curl, etc. The whole formula must fit on one line. Lets go over the Python Calculator with an example.

• Lets create a new point variable, loaded with 5.

• Open can.ex2.

• Turn all variables on.

• Apply.

• Filters → Alphabetical → Python Calculator.

• Change Expression to 5.

• Set Array Association to Point Data

• Change Array Name to Calculated Variable.

• Apply.

• Paint by Calculated Variable.

• Lets create a variable equal to two times displacement.

• Change Expression to DISPL*2.

• Apply.

• Go to last timestep.

• Rescale to Data Range.

• Note: A more complete way to access displacement data. We explicitly pull DISPL from the first input to the filter. Don’t forget that the first input is , the second is , etc.

• Change Expression to (inputs.PointData[‘DISPL’]) * 2.

• Apply.

• Rescale to Data Range.

• Here is how to multiply a vector by a global variable. Lets multiply DISPL by the timestep (TMSTEP)

• Change expression to inputs.FieldData[‘NSTEPS’][time_index] * DISPL.

• Apply.

• Rescale to Data Range.

• To recap, If a function requires a variable input, use the string above. If the function needs the input mesh, use inputs[].

Did you know?

Python uses square brackets for arrays, and parenthesis to group parts of your formula. Also, to designate a string (i.e., variable name), use either single or double quotation marks.

• Lets create a variable to contains the cell volume.

• Change expression to volume(inputs).

• Apply.

• Rescale to Data Range.

• Numerous functions can be combined in one expression. For instance, a nonsensical expression would be to take a sin of a divergence of a curl. Here is the expression:

• Change expression to sin(divergence(curl(‘ACCL’))). Apply. Rescale to Data Range.

Interesting are functions available through the Python Calculator:

• area(dataset)

• aspect(dataset)

• cos(array)

• cross(X,Y) where X and Y are two 3D vector arrays

• curl(array)

• divergence(array)

• dot(a1,a2)

• eigenvalue and eigenvector(array)

• max(array)

• mean(array)

• min(array)

• norm(array)

• sin(array)

• strain(array)

• volume(array)

• vorticity(array)

The complete list can be found in Section 5.9.3 of the User’s Guide.

## 13.3. Programmable Source

The Programmable Source is used to either be a source for new data, or to read in data from a file. It is written in Python. Later, filters will be used to modify this data. An example of a Programmable Source would be reading a .csv file into `paraview`.

• Create a .csv file named data.csv. Place the following into this file.

```x coord, y coord, z coord, scalar
0,0,0,0
1,0,0,1
0,1,0,2
1,1,0,2
-0.5,-0.5,1,4
-0.5,-0.5,1,5
-0.5,-0.5,1,6
-0.5,-0.5,1,7
```
• Select Sources → Programmable Source

• Change Output Dataset Type to vtkTable

• Enter the following into the Script window:

```import numpy as np
data = np.genfromtxt("c:/.../../data.csv", dtype=None, names=True,
delimiter=',', autostrip=True)
for name in data.dtype.names:
array = data[name]
output.RowData.append(array,name)
```
• Select Filters → Alphabetical → Table to Points filter.

• X Column == x_coord.

• Y Column == y_coord.

• Z Column == z_coord.

• Apply.

• Select the 3d view, and turn on visibility.

Some Example Programmable Sources in the the ParaView User Guide are:

• Reading a CSV file

• Reading a CSV file series

• Reading a CSV file with particles

• Reading binary 2D image

• Helix source

Mode details about the Programmable Source can be in Section 5.2 of the Reference Manual.

## 13.4. Programmable Filter

The Programmable Filter is used to modify data in the pipeline using Python. An example of a Programmable Filter dividing a variable by 2:

• Divide ACCL by 2

• Open can.ex2.

• Turn all variables on.

• Apply.

• Select Filters → Alphabetical → Programmable Filter.

• Leave Output Data

• Set Type as Same as Input.

• Enter the following into the Script window:

```input0 = inputs
dataArray = input0.PointData["ACCL"] / 2.0
output.PointData.append(dataArray, "ACCL_half")
```
• Set Coloring by ACCL_half

• Subtract two datasets from each other. Use two instances of disk_out_ref.ex2 as two datasets, subtract GaMe3 from AsH3.

• Open disk_out_ref.ex2.

• Turn all variables on.

• Apply.

• Open disk_out_ref.ex2.

• Turn all variables on.

• Apply.

• Highlight both datasets. Use the key with the mouse to select more than one input.

• Select Filters → Alphabetical → Programmable Filter.

• Leave Output Data

• Set Type as Same as Input.

• Enter the following into the Script window:

```v_0 = inputs.PointData['AsH3']
v_1 = inputs.PointData['GaMe3']
output.PointData.append(v_1 - v_0, 'difference')
```
• Set Coloring to difference

• Create a tensor

```from paraview.vtk.numpy_interface import dataset_adapter as dsa
import numpy
def make_tensor(xx,yy,zz, xy, yz, xz):

t = numpy.vstack([xx,yy,zz,xy, yz,
xz]).transpose().view(dsa.VTKArray)
t.DataSet = xx.DataSet
t.Association = xx.Association
return t

xx = inputs.PointData["sigma_xx"]
yy = inputs.PointData["sigma_yy"]
zz = inputs.PointData["sigma_zz"]
xy = inputs.PointData["sigma_xy"]
yz = inputs.PointData["sigma_yz"]
xz = inputs.PointData["sigma_xz"]
output.PointData.append(make_tensor(xx,yy,zz,xy,yz,xz), "tensor")
```
• Subtract two timesteps from each other

• Select Filters → Alphabetical → Force Time.

• Set the timestep to the one whose displacement you want to be zero.

• The output of this filter is the can.ex2 dataset “frozen” at the chosen timestep. It will not change as you advance through time.

• Select both can.ex2 (using the CTRL key) and the ForceTime1 sources in the Pipeline Browser. Note that the original can.ex2 source will update as the timestep changes, but the ForceTime1 source will not change.

• Select Filters → Alphabetical → Python Calculator.

• Substract the displacement in the “frozen” data set from the current timestep in can.ex2.

• Set the expression to inputs.PointData[‘DISPL’] - inputs.PointData[‘DISPL’]

• The order of inputs into the Python Calculator is not well defined, so you may need to swap the indices in inputs and inputs to get the correct sign on the result, but this should work.

• (If desired,) Finally, add a Plot Selection over Time filter. This filter will run over all time steps, subtracting the data from the current timestep from the data in the “frozen” timestep produced by the Force Time filter, and plot the result in a graph. The first timestep should have a value of 0.

• Read eigenvector, calculate an eigenvalue, and place it into three variables

```# ParaView Programmable Filter script.  ParaView 5.0.1.
#
# This code will read in an eigenvector, calculate an
#    eigenvalue, and place it into three variables.
#
# Be sure to correct the input variables below.  Also, note that
#   the code uses ZX, not XZ.
#
# This code only works with any multiblock or vtk
#   datasets (including ones with only one block - i.e.,
#   Exodus datasets as input).
#
# Usage:  Run the Programmable Filter.
#   Cut and paste this file in the section named "Script".
#   Leave "Output Data Set Type" as "Same as Input".
#   Click Apply button
#
# Written by Jeff Mauldin and Alan Scott
#

import numpy as np

def process_composite_dataset(input0):
# Pick up input arrays
xxar = input0.CellData["EPSXX"]
xyar = input0.CellData["EPSXY"]
zxar = input0.CellData["EPSZX"]
yyar = input0.CellData["EPSYY"]
yzar = input0.CellData["EPSYZ"]
zzar = input0.CellData["EPSZZ"]

#print `xxar`
#print len(xxar.Arrays)

# Set output arrays to same type as input array.
# Do a multiply to make sure we don't just have a
# pointer to the original.
outarray0 = xxar*0.5
outarray1 = xxar*0.5
outarray2 = xxar*0.5

# Run a for loop over all blocks
numsubarrays = len(xxar.Arrays)
for ii in range(0, numsubarrays):
# pick up input arrays for each block.
xxarsub = xxar.Arrays[ii]
xyarsub = xyar.Arrays[ii]
zxarsub = zxar.Arrays[ii]
yyarsub = yyar.Arrays[ii]
yzarsub = yzar.Arrays[ii]
zzarsub = zzar.Arrays[ii]

#print `xxarsub`

# Transpose and calculate the principle strain.
strain = np.transpose(
np.array(
[ [xxarsub, xyarsub, zxarsub],
[xyarsub, yyarsub, yzarsub],
[zxarsub, yzarsub, zzarsub] ] ),
(2,0,1))

principal_strain = np.linalg.eigvalsh(strain)

# Move principle strain to temp output arrays for this block
outarray0.Arrays[ii] = principal_strain[:,0]
outarray1.Arrays[ii] = principal_strain[:,1]
outarray2.Arrays[ii] = principal_strain[:,2]

#ps0 = principal_strain[:,0]
#print "ps0 len: " + str(len(ps0))

# Finally, move the temp arrays to output arrays
output.CellData.append(outarray0, "principal_strain_0")
output.CellData.append(outarray1, "principal_strain_1")
output.CellData.append(outarray2, "principal_strain_2")

def process_unstructured_dataset(input0):
# Pick up input arrays
xxar = input0.CellData["EPSXX"]
xyar = input0.CellData["EPSXY"]
zxar = input0.CellData["EPSZX"]
yyar = input0.CellData["EPSYY"]
yzar = input0.CellData["EPSYZ"]
zzar = input0.CellData["EPSZZ"]

#print `xxar`
#print len(xxar.Arrays)

# Transpose and calculate the principle strain.
strain = np.transpose(
np.array(
[ [xxar, xyar, zxar],
[xyar, yyar, yzar],
[zxar, yzar, zzar] ] ),
(2,0,1))

principal_strain = np.linalg.eigvalsh(strain)

#ps0 = principal_strain[:,0]
#print "ps0 len: " + str(len(ps0))

# Finally, move the temp arrays to output arrays
output.CellData.append(principal_strain[:,0],
"principal_strain_0")
output.CellData.append(principal_strain[:,1],
"principal_strain_1")
output.CellData.append(principal_strain[:,2],
"principal_strain_2")

input0 = inputs

if input0.IsA("vtkCompositeDataSet"):
process_composite_dataset(input0)
elif input0.IsA("vtkUnstructuredGrid"):
process_unstructured_dataset(input0)
else:
print "Bad dataset type for this script"
```

Important note: Since the Programmable Source and Programmable Filter work at the server level, paraview.simple cannot be loaded or used.

Mode details about the Programmable Filter can be found in Section 5 of the Reference Manual.

Additionally, this is list of interesting Blog Posts related to the Programmable Filter: