5. Filtering Data
Visualization can be characterized as a process of transforming raw data produced from experiments or simulations until it takes a form in which it can be interpreted and analysed. The visualization pipeline introduced in Section 1.2 formalizes this concept as a data flow paradigm where a pipeline is set up of sources, filters, and sinks (collectively called pipeline modules or algorithms). Data flows through this pipeline, being transformed at each node until it is in a form where it can be consumed by the sinks. In previous chapters, we saw how to ingest data into ParaView (Section 2) and how to display it in views (Section 4). If the data ingested into ParaView already has all the relevant attribute data, and it is in the form that can be directly represented in one the existing views, then that is all you would need. The true power of the visualization process, however, comes from leveraging the various visualization techniques such as slicing, contouring, clipping, etc., which are available as filters. In this chapter, we look at constructing pipelines to transform data using such filters.
5.1. Understanding filters
In ParaView, filters are pipeline modules or algorithms that have inputs and
outputs. They take in data on their inputs and produce transformed data or
results on their outputs. A filter can have multiple input and output ports.
The number of input and output ports on a filter is fixed. Each input port accepts
input data for a specific purpose or role within the filter. (E.g., the
Resample With Dataset
filter has two input ports. The one called Input
is the input port through which the dataset providing the attributes to
interpolate is ingested. The other, called Source
, is the input port
through which the dataset used as the mesh on which to resample is accepted.)
An input port itself can optionally accept multiple input connections, e.g., the
Append Datasets
filter, which appends multiple datasets to create a single
dataset only has one input port (named Input
). However, that port can accept
multiple connections for each of the datasets to be appended . Filters define
whether a particular input port can accept one or many input connections.
Similar to readers, the properties on the filter allow you to control the filtering algorithm. The properties available depend on the filter itself.
5.2. Creating filters in paraview
All available filters in paraview
are listed under the Filters
menu. These are organized in various categories. To create a filter to transform
the data produced by a source or a reader, you select the source in the Pipeline
Browser
to make it active, and then click on the corresponding menu item in the
Filters menu. If a menu item is disabled, it implies that the active source
does not produce data that can be transformed by this filter.
Did you know?
If a menu item in the Filters menu is disabled, it implies that the active source(s) is not producing data of the expected type or the characteristics needed by the filter. On Windows and Linux machines, if you hover over the disabled menu item, the status bar will show the reason why the filter is not available.
5.2.1. Multiple input connections
When you create a filter, the active source is connected to the first input port
of the filter. Filters like Append Datasets
can take multiple input
connections on that input port. In such a case, to pass multiple pipeline
modules as connections on a single input port of a filter, select all the
relevant pipeline modules in the Pipeline Browser
. You can select multiple
items by using the CTRL (or ⌘) and ⇧ key
modifiers. When multiple pipeline modules are selected, only the filters that
accept multiple connections on their input ports will be enabled in the
Filters menu.
5.2.2. Multiple input ports
Most filters have just one input port. Hence, as soon as you click on the filter
name in the Filters menu, it will create a new filter instance and that
will show up in the Pipeline Browser
. Certain filters, such as Resample
With Dataset
, have multiple inputs that must be set up before the filter can be
created. In such a case, when you click on the filter name, the Change Input
Dialog
will pop up, as seen in Fig. 5.3.
This dialog allows you to select the pipeline modules to be
connected to each of the input ports. The active source(s) is connected by
default to the first input port. You are free to change those as well.
5.2.3. Changing input connections
paraview
allows you to change the inputs to a filter after the
filter has been created. To change inputs to a filter, rightclick on the filter
in the Pipeline Browser
to get the context menu, and then select Change
Input...
. This will pop up the same Change Input Dialog
as when creating a
filter with multiple input ports. You can use this dialog to set new inputs
for this filter.
Did you know?
While the Filters menu is a handy way to create new filters, with the long list
of filters available in ParaView, manually finding a particular filter in this
menu can be very challenging. To make it easier, ParaView incorporates a quick
launch mechanism. When you want to create a new filter (or a source), simply type
CTRL + Space or Alt + Space. This will pop up
the quicklaunch dialog. Now, start typing the name of the filter you want. As
you type, the dialog will update to show the filters and sources that match the
typed text. You can use the arrow keys to navigate and use the Enter key
to create the selected filter (or source). Press ⇧ while pressing Enter
to quickly apply the filter on creation, equivalent to creating the filter and then
clicking the Apply
button. Note that filters may be disabled,
as was the case in the Filters menu but by default the selected item
will be the first enabled filter.
You can use Esc to clear the text you have typed so far. Hit the
Esc a second time, and the dialog will close without creating any new
filter.
5.3. Creating filters in pvpython
To create a filter in pvpython
, you simply create the object by
using its name as a constructor function.
>>> from paraview.simple import *
...
>>> filter = Shrink()
Similar to paraview
, the filter will use the active source(s) as
the input. Additionally, you can explicitly specify the input in the function
arguments.
>>> reader = OpenDataFile(...)
...
>>> shrink = Shift(Input=reader)
5.3.1. Multiple input connections
To setup multiple input connections, you can specify the connections as follows:
>>> sphere = Sphere()
>>> cone = Cone()
# Simply pass the sources as a list to the constructor function.
>>> appendDatasets = AppendDatasets(Input=[sphere, cone])
>>> print(appendDatasets.Input)
[<paraview.servermanager.Sphere object at 0x6d75f90>, <paraview.servermanager.Cone object at 0x6d75c50>]
5.3.2. Multiple input ports
Setting up connections to multiple input ports is similar to the multiple input connections, except that you need to ensure that you name the input ports properly.
>>> sphere = Sphere()
>>> wavelet = Wavelet()
>>> resampleWithDataSet = ResampleWithDataset(Input=sphere, Source=wavelet)
5.3.3. Changing input connections
Changing inputs in Python is as simple as setting any other property on the filter.
# For filter with single input connection
>>> shrink.Input = cone
# for filters with multiple input connects
>>> appendDatasets.Input = [reader, cone]
# to add a new input.
>>> appendDatasets.Input.append(sphere)
# to change multiple ports
>>> resampleWithDataSet.Input = wavelet2
>>> resampleWithDataSet.Source = cone
5.4. Changing filter properties in paraview
Filters provide properties that you can change to control the processing
algorithm employed by the filter. Changing and viewing properties on filters is
the same as with any other pipeline module, including readers and sources.
You can view and change these properties, when available, using the
Properties
panel.
Section 1 covers how to effectively use the
Properties
panel. Since this panel only shows the properties present on the
active source , you must ensure that the filter
you are interested in is active. To make the filter active, use the Pipeline
Browser
to click on the filter and select it.
5.5. Changing filter properties in pvpython
With pvpython
, the available properties are accessible as properties
on the filter object, and you can get or set their values by name (similar to
changing the input connections
(Section 5.3.3)).
# You can save the object reference when it's created.
>>> shrink = Shrink()
# Or you can get access to the active source.
>>> Shrink() # < this will make the Shrink the active source.
>>> shrink = GetActiveSource()
# To figure out available properties, you can always use help.
>>> help(shrink)
Help on Shrink in module paraview.servermanager object:
class Shrink(SourceProxy)
 Shrink(**args)

 The Shrink filter causes the individual cells of a dataset to break apart from
each other by moving each cell's points toward the centroid of the cell. (The
centroid of a cell is the average position of its points.) This filter operates
on any type of dataset and produces unstructured grid output.

 Method resolution order:
 Shrink
 SourceProxy
 Proxy
 builtins.object

 Methods defined here:

 Initialize = aInitialize(self, connection=None, update=True)

 
 Data descriptors defined here:

 Input
 This property specifies the input to the Shrink filter.

 ShrinkFactor
 The value of this property determines how far the points will move. A value
of 0 positions the points at the centroid of the cell; a value of 1 leaves
them at their original positions.
....
# To get the current value of a property:
>>> sf = shrink.ShrinkFactor
>>> print sf
0.5
# To set the value
>>> shrink.ShrinkFactor = 0.75
In the rest of this chapter, we will discuss some of the commonly used filters in detail. They are grouped under categories based on the type of operation that they perform.
5.6. Filters for subsetting data
These filters are used for extracting subsets from an input dataset. How this subset is defined and how it is extracted depends on the type of the filter.
5.6.1. Clip
Clip
is used to clip any dataset using either an implicit function (such as
a plane, sphere, or a box) or using values of a scalar data array in the input
dataset. A scalar array is a point or cell attribute array with a single
component. Clipping involves iterating over all cells in the input dataset and then
removing those cells that are considered outside of the space defined by
the implicit function or that have an attribute values less than the selected value.
For cells that straddle the clipping surface, these are clipped to pass
through the part of the cell that is truly inside the specified implicit
function (or greater than the scalar value).
This filter converts any dataset into an unstructured grid (Section 3.1.7) or a multiblock of unstructured grids (Section 3.1.10) in the case of composite datasets.
5.6.1.1. Clip in paraview
To create the Clip
filter, access it through the Filters > Common or
the Filters > Alphabetical menus. This filter is also accessible from the
Common
filters toolbar by clicking the button to create
this filter.
On the Properties
panel, you will see the available properties for this
filter. One of the first things that you should select is the Clip Type
.
Clip Type
is used to specify the type of implicit function to use for the
clipping operations. The available options include Plane
, Box
,
Sphere
, and Scalar
. Selecting any one of these options will update
the panel to show properties that are used to define the implicit function, e.g.,
the Origin
and the Normal
for the Plane
or the Center
and
the Radius
for the Sphere
. If you select Scalar
, the panel will let
you pick the data array and the value with which to clip. Remember, cells with the
data value greater than or equal to the selected value are considered in
and are passed through the filter.
Did you know?
When clipping with implicit functions, ParaView renders widgets in the active
view that you can use to interactively control the implicit function, called
3D widgets
. As you interact with the 3D widget, the panel will update to
reflect the current values. The 3D widget is considered an aid and not as a part
of the actual visualization scene. Thus, if you change the active source and the
Properties
panel navigates away from this filter, the 3D widget will
automatically be hidden.
The Inside Out
option can be used to invert the behavior of this filter.
Basically, it flips the notion of what is considered inside and outside of the given
clipping space.
Check Crinkle Clip
if you don’t want this filter to truly clip cells on the
boundary, but want to preserve the input cell structure and to pass the entire cell on through the
boundary (Fig. 5.5).
This option is not available when clipping by Scalar
.
5.6.1.2. Clip in pvpython
This following script demonstrates various aspects of using the Clip
filter
in pvpython
.
# Create the Clip filter.
>>> clip = Clip(Input=...)
# Specify a 'ClipType' to use.
>>> clip.ClipType = 'Plane'
# You can also use the SetProperties API instead.
>>> SetProperties(clip, ClipType='Plane')
>>> print(clip.GetProperty('ClipType').GetAvailable())
['Plane', 'Box', 'Sphere', 'Scalar']
# To set the plane origin and normal
>>> clip.ClipType.Origin = [0, 0, 0]
>>> clip.ClipType.Normal = [1, 0, 0]
# If you want to change to Sphere and set center and
# radius, you can do the following.
>>> clip.ClipType = 'Sphere'
>>> clip.ClipType.Center = [0, 0, 0]
>>> clip.ClipType.Radius = 12
# Using SetProperties API, the same looks like
>>> SetProperties(clip, ClipType='Sphere')
>>> SetProperties(clip.ClipType, Center=[0, 0, 0],
Radius = 12)
# To set Crinkle clipping.
>>> clip.Crinkleclip = 1
# For clipping with scalar, you pick the scalar array
# and then the value as follows:
>>> clip.ClipType = 'Scalar'
>>> clip.Scalars = ('POINTS', 'Temp')
>>> clip.Value = 100
# As always, to get the list of available properties on
# the clip filter, use help()
>>> help(clip)
Help on Clip in module paraview.servermanager object:
class Clip(SourceProxy)
 Clip(**args)

 The Clip filter cuts away a portion of the input data set using an implicit
function (an implicit description). This filter operates on all types of
data sets, and it returns unstructured grid data on output.

 Method resolution order:
 Clip
 SourceProxy
 Proxy
 builtins.object

 Methods defined here:

 Initialize = aInitialize(self, connection=None, update=True)

 
 Data descriptors defined here:

 ClipType
 This property specifies the parameters of the clip function (an implicit
description) used to clip the dataset.

 Crinkleclip
 This parameter controls whether to extract entire cells in the given
region or clip those cells so all of the output will stay only on that
side of region.

 Exact
 If this property is set to 1 it will clip to the exact specifications
for the **Box** option only, otherwise the clip will only approximate
the box geometry. The exact clip is very expensive as it requires
generating 6 plane clips. Additionally, **Invert** must be checked and
**Crinkle clip** must be unchecked.

 HyperTreeGridClipper
 This property specifies the parameters of the clip function (an implicit
description) used to clip the hyper tree grid.

 Input
 This property specifies the dataset on which the Clip filter will operate.

 Invert
 Invert which part of the geometry is clipped.
...
# To get help on a specific implicit function type, make it the active
# ClipType and then use help()
>>> clip.ClipType = 'Plane'
>>> help(clip.ClipType)
Help on Plane in module paraview.servermanager object:
class Plane(Proxy)
...
Common Errors
It is very easy to forget that clipping a structured dataset such as image
data can dramatically increase the memory requirements, since this filter will
convert the structured dataset into an unstructured grid due to the nature of
the clipping operation itself. For structured dataset, think about using
Slice
or Extract Subset
filters instead, whenever appropriate. Those
are not entirely identical operations, but they are often sufficient.
5.6.2. Slice
The Slice
filter slices through the input dataset with an implicit function
such as a plane, a sphere, or a box. Since this filter returns data elements along
the implicit function boundary, this is a dimensionality reducing filter (except
when crinkle slicing is enabled), i.e., if
the input dataset has 3D elements like tetrahedrons or hexahedrons, the output
will have 2D elements, line triangles, and quads, if any. While slicing through a
dataset with 2D elements, the result will be lines.
The properties available on this filter, as well as the way of setting this
filter up, is very similar to the Clip
filter with a few notable
differences. What remains similar is the set up of the implicit function –
you have similar choices: Plane
, Box
, Sphere
, and Cylinder
, as well as the
option to toggle Crinkle slice
(i.e., to avoid cutting through cells,
pass complete cells from the input dataset that intersects the implicit function).
What is different includes the lack of slicing by Scalar
(for that, you
can use the Contour
filter) and a new option, Triangulate the slice
.
Fig. 5.7
shows the difference in the generated meshes when various slice properties are
changed.
The Slice
filter is more versatile than the Slice
representation. First,
the Slice
representation is available for image datasets only, whereas the
Slice
filter can be used on any type of 3D dataset. Second, the representation
extracts a subset of the image consisting of a 2D slice oriented in the XY,
YZ, or XZ planes at the image voxel locations while the plane used by the filter
can be placed arbitrarily. Third, since the Slice
representation always
shows a flat object and lighting may interfere with interpretation of data values
on the slice, lighting is not applied to the Slice
representation. Lighting
is applied, however, to results from the Slice
filter. Lastly, the Slice
representation may be faster than the filter to update and scrub through different
slices because it does not need to compute the intersection of a plane with cells
in the dataset.
In paraview
, this filter can be created using the
button on the Common
filters toolbar, besides the
Filters menu.
5.6.3. Extract Subset
For structured datasets such as
image datasets (Section 3.1.3), rectilinear grids
(Section 3.1.4), and
curvilinear grids (Section 3.1.5), Extract
Subset
filter can be used to extract a region of interest or a subgrid. The
region to extract is specified using structured coordinates, i.e., the
\(i\), \(j\), \(k\) values. Whenever possible, this filter should be preferred over
Clip
or Slice
for structured datasets, since it preserves the input
data type. Besides extracting a subset, this filter can also be used to resample
the dataset to a coarser resolution by specifying the sample rate along each of
the structured dimensions.
5.6.3.1. Extract Subset in paraview
This is one of the filters available on the Common
filters toolbar
To specify the region of interest, use the VOI
property. The values are
specified as min and max values for each of the structured dimensions (\(i\), \(j\),
\(k\),) in each row. Sample Rate I
, Sample Rate J
,
and Sample Rate K
specify the subsampling rate. Set it to a value greater than one to subsample.
Include Boundary
is used to determine if the boundary slab should be
included in the extracted result, if the subsampling rate along that dimension
is greater than 1, and the boundary slab would otherwise have been skipped.
5.6.4. Threshold
The Threshold
filter extracts cells of the input dataset with scalar
values lying within the specified range, depending on the selected threshold method.
This filter operates on either pointcentered or cellcentered data.
Any type of dataset can be used as input. The filter produces an unstructured grid output.
When thresholding with cell data, all cells that have scalars within the
specified range will be passed through the filter. When thresholding with point
data, cells with all points with scalar values within the range are passed
through if All Scalars
is checked; otherwise, cells with any point
that passes the thresholding criteria are passed through.
5.6.4.1. Threshold in paraview
This filter is represented as on the Common
filters toolbar.
After selecting the Scalars
with which to threshold from the combobox, the
Lower Threshold
and Upper Threshold
values can be modified to specify the
range. If the range shown by the sliders is not sufficient, it is also possible
to manually type the values in the input boxes. The values are deliberately not
clamped to the current data range.
The threshold method can also be selected using the Threshold Method
combo box:
Between
: Extracts cells with scalar values between theLower Threshold
andUpper Threshold
.Below Lower Threshold
: Extracts cells with scalar values smaller than theLower Threshold
.Above Upper Threshold
: Extracts cells with scalar values larger than theUpper Threshold
.
If the Scalars
property is set to a vector array, the Component Mode
property can be used to choose whether “All” components must pass the threshold test,
“Any” component needs to pass the threshold test, or if a “Selected” component
needs to pass the threshold test. If Component Mode
is “Selected”, the
Selected Component
property designates which vector component needs to pass the
threshold test. Other components are not tested.
5.6.4.2. Threshold in pvpython
# Create the filter. If Input is not specified, the active source will be
# used as the input.
>>> threshold = Threshold(Input=...)
# Here's how to select a scalar array.
>>> threshold.Scalars = ("POINTS", "scalars")
# The value is a tuple where the first value is the association: either "POINTS"
# or "CELLS", and the second value is the name of the selected array.
>>> print(threshold.Scalars)
['POINTS', 'scalars']
>>> print(threshold.Scalars.GetArrayName())
'scalars'
>>> print(threshold.Scalars.GetAssociation())
'POINTS'
# Different threshold methods are available and are set using one of the following:
>>> threshold.ThresholdMethod = "Between" # Uses both lower and upper values
>>> threshold.ThresholdMethod = "Below Lower Threshold" # Uses only lower value
>>> threshold.ThresholdMethod = "Above Upper Threshold" # Uses only upper value
# The adequate threshold values are then specified as:
>>> threshold.LowerThreshold = 63.75
>>> threshold.UpperThreshold = 252.45
To determine the types of arrays available in the input dataset, and their ranges, refer to the discussion on data information in Section 3.3.
5.6.5. Iso Volume
The Iso Volume
filter is similar to Threshold
in that you use this to
create an output dataset from an input where the cells that satisfy the
specified range are scalar values. In fact, the filter is identical to
Threshold
when the cell data scalars are selected. For point data scalars,
however, this filter acts similar to the Clip
filters when clipping with
scalars, in that cells are clipped along the isosurface formed by the scalar range.
5.6.6. Extract Selection
Extract Selection
is a generalpurpose filter to extract selected elements
from a dataset. There are several ways of making selections in ParaView. Once
you have made the selection, this filter allows you to extract the selected
elements as a new dataset for further processing. We will cover this filter in
more detail when looking at selections in ParaView in
Section 6.6.
5.7. Filters for geometric manipulation
These filters are used to transform the geometry of the dataset without affecting its topology or its connectivity.
5.7.1. Transform
The Transform
can be used to arbitrarily translate, rotate, and scale a
dataset. The transformation is applied by
scaling the dataset, rotating it, and then translating it
based on the values specified.
As this is a geometric manipulation filter, this filter does not affect connectivity in the input dataset. While it tries to preserve the input dataset type, whenever possible, there are cases when the transformed dataset can no longer be represented in the same data type as the input. For example, with image data (Section 3.1.3) and rectilinear grids (Section 3.1.4) that are transformed by rotation, the output dataset can be nonaxis aligned and, hence, cannot be represented as either data types. In such cases, the dataset is converted to a structured, or curvilinear, grid (Section 3.1.5). Since curvilinear grids are not as compact as the other two, the need to store the results in a more general data type implies a considerable increase in the memory footprint.
5.7.2. Transform in paraview
You can create a new Transform
from the Filters > Alphabetical menu.
Once created, you can set the transform as the translation, rotation, and scale
to use utilizing the Properties
panel. Similar to Clip
, this filter also
supports using a 3D widget to interactively set the transformation.
5.7.3. Transform in pvpython
# To create the filter(if Input is not specified, the active source will be
# used as the input).
>>> transform = Transform(Input=...)
# Set the transformation properties.
>>> transform.Translate.Scale = [1, 2, 1]
>>> transform.Transform.Translate = [100, 0, 0]
>>> transform.Transform.Rotate = [0, 0, 0]
5.7.4. Reflect
Reflect
can be used to reflect any dataset across an axis plane. You can
pick the axis plane to be one of the planes formed by the bounding box of the
dataset. For that, set Plane
as X Min
, X Max
, Y Min
, Y Max
,
Z Min
, or Z Max
. To reflect across an arbitrary axis plane,
select X
, Y
, or Z
for the Plane
property, and then set the
Center
to the plane offset from the origin.
This filter reflects the input dataset and produces an unstructured grid
(Section 3.1.7). Thus, the same caveats for
Clip
and Threshold
filter apply here when dealing with structured
datasets.
5.7.5. Warp By Vector
Warp By Vector
can be used to displace point coordinates in an input mesh
using vectors in the dataset itself. You select the vectors to use utilizing the
Vectors
property on the Properties
panel. Scale Factor
can be
used to scale the displacement applied.
5.7.6. Warp By Scalar
Warp By Scalar
is similar to Warp By Vector
in the sense that it warps
the input mesh. However, it does so using a scalar array in the input dataset. The
direction of displacement can either be explicitly specified using the
Normal
property, or you can check Use Normal
to use normals at the
point locations.
5.8. Filters for sampling
These filters compute new datasets that represent some essential features from the datasets that they take as input.
5.8.1. Glyph
Glyph
is used to place markers or glyphs at point locations in the input
dataset. The glyphs can be oriented or scaled based on vector and
scalar attributes on those points.
To create this filter in paraview
, you can use the Filters menu,
as well as the
button on the Common
filters toolbar. You first select
the type of glyph using one of the options in Glyph Type
. The choices
include Arrow
, Sphere
, Cylinder
, etc. Next, you select the point
arrays to use as the Orientation Array
(selecting No orientation array
will result in the glyphs not being oriented). Similarly, you select a point array
to serve as the glyph Scale Array
(no scaling is performed if No scale array
is chosen).
If the Scale Array
is set to a vector array, the Vector Scale Mode
property is available to select which properties of the vector should be used
to transform each glyph. If Scale by Magnitude
is chosen, then the glyph
at a point will be scaled by the magnitude of the vector at that point. If
Scale by Components
is chosen, glyphs will be scaled separately in each
dimension by the vector component in that dimension.
The Scale Factor
is used to apply a constant scaling to all the glyphs,
independent of the Scale Array
and Vector Scale Mode
properties.
Choosing a good scale factor depends on
several things including the bounds on the input dataset, the Scale Array
and Vector Scale Mode
selected, and the range for the array selected as the
Scale Array
. You can use the button next to the Scale Factor
widget to have paraview
pick a usually reasonable scale factor value based on the current dataset and
scaling properties.
The Masking
properties control which points from the input
dataset get glyphed. The Glyph Mode
controls how points are selected to be
glyphs (Fig. 5.15). The available options are as follows:
All Points
: This selects all points in the input dataset for glyphing. Use this mode with caution and only when the input dataset has relatively few points. Since all points in the input dataset are glyphed, this can not only cause visual clutter, but also clog up memory and take a long to time to generate and render the glyphs.Every Nth Points
: This elects every \(n^{th}\) point in the input dataset for glyphing, where \(n\) can be specified usingStride
. SettingStride
to 1 will have the same effect asAll Points
.Uniform Spatial Distribution (Bounds Based)
: This selects a random set of points. The algorithm works by first computing up toMaximum Number of Sample Points
in the space defined by the bounding box of the input dataset. Then, points in the input dataset that are close to the point in this set of sample points are glyphed. TheSeed
is used to seed the random number generator used to generate the sample points. This ensures that the random sample points are reproducible and consistent.Uniform Spatial Distribution (Surface Sampling)
: Selects a random set of points from the outer bounding surface of the input dataset. An inverse transform sampler is used to find a 2D cell on the surface to sample and a point is uniformly sampled from that cell.Uniform Spatial Distribution (Volume Sampling)
: Similar to the surface sampling mode described above, but the inverse transform sampler is used to find a 3D cell from which a random point is uniformly sampled
Did you know?
The Glyph
representation can be used for many of the same visualizations
where a Glyph
filter might be used. It may offer faster rendering and consume
less memory than the Glyph
filter with similar capabilities. In circumstances
where generating a 3D geometry is required, e.g., when exporting glyph geometry
to a file, the Glyph
filter is required.
5.8.2. Glyph With Custom Source
Glyph With Custom Source
is the same as Glyph
, except that instead of a limited
set of Glyph Type
, you can select any data source producing a polygonal
dataset (Section 3.1.8) available in the Pipeline
Browser
. To use this filter, select the data source you wish to glyph in the
Pipeline Browser
and attach this filter to it. You will be presented a dialog
where you can set the Input
(which defaults to the source you selected) and
the Glyph Source
.
5.8.3. Stream Tracer
The Stream Tracer
filter is used to generate streamlines for vector fields.
In visualization, streamlines refer to curves that are instanteneously
tangential to the the vector field in the dataset. They provide an indication of
the direction in which the particles in the dataset would travel at that instant
in time. The algorithm works by taking a set of points, known as seed
points, in the dataset and then integrating the streamlines starting at these seed
points.
In paraview
, you can create this filter using the Filters
menu, as well as the button on the Common
filters toolbar. To use
this filter, you first select the attribute array to use as the Vectors
for
generating the streamline. Integration Parameters
let you fine tune the
streamline integration by specifying the direction to integrate,
Integration Direction
, as well as the type of integration algorithm to
use, Integrator Type
. Advanced integration parameters are available in the
advanced view of the Properties
panel that let you further tune the
integration, including specifying the step size and others. You use the
Maximum Streamline Length
to limit the maximum length for the streamline –
the longer the length, the longer the generated streamlines.
Seeds
group lets you set how the seed points for generating the streamlines
are produced. You have two options: Point Source
, which produces a point
clound around the userspecified Point
based on the parameters specified,
and High Resolution Line Source
, which produces seed points along the userspecified
line. You can use the 3D widgets shown in the active Render View
to interactively place the center for the point cloud or for defining the line.
Did you know?
The Stream Tracer
filter produces a polydata with 1D lines for each of the
generated streamlines. Since 1D lines cannot be shaded like surfaces in the
Render View
, you can get visualizations where it is hard to follow the
streamlines. To give the streamlines some 3D structure, you can apply the
Tube
filter to the output of the streamlines. The properties on the
Tube
filter let you control the thickness of the tubes. You can also vary
the thickness of the tubes based on data array, e.g., the magnitude of the
vector field at the sample points in the streamline!
A script using the Stream Tracer
filter in paraview
typically
looks like this:
# find source
>>> disk_out_refex2 = FindSource('disk_out_ref.ex2')
# create a new 'Stream Tracer'
>>> streamTracer1 = StreamTracer(Input=disk_out_refex2,
SeedType='Point Source')
>>> streamTracer1.Vectors = ['POINTS', 'V']
# init the 'Point Source' selected for 'SeedType'
>>> streamTracer1.SeedType.Center = [0.0, 0.0, 0.07999992370605469]
>>> streamTracer1.SeedType.Radius = 2.015999984741211
# show data in view
>>> Show()
# create a new 'Tube'
>>> tube1 = Tube(Input=streamTracer1)
# Properties modified on tube1
>>> tube1.Radius = 0.1611409378051758
# show the data from tubes in view
>>> Show()
5.8.4. Stream Tracer With Custom Source
Stream Tracer
allows you to specify the seed points either as a point cloud
or as a line source. However, if you want to provide your own seed points from
another data producer, use the Stream Tracer With Custom Source
. Similar to
Glyph With Custom Source
, this filter allows you to pick a second input
connection to use as the seed points.
5.8.5. Resample With Dataset
Resample With Dataset
samples the point and cell attributes of one dataset
on to the points of another dataset. The two datasets are supplied to the
filter using its two input ports: Input
, which is the dataset that
provides the attributes to resample, and Source
, which is the dataset that
provides the points to sample at. This filter is available under the
Filters menu.
5.8.6. Resample To Image
Resample To Image
is a specialization of Resample With Dataset
.
The filter takes one input and samples its point and cell attributes onto a
uniform grid of points. The bounds and extents of the uniform grid can be
specified using the properties panel. By default, the bounds are set to the
bounds of the input dataset. The output of the filter is an Image dataset.
Some operations can be performed more efficiently on uniform grid datasets.
Volume rendering is one such operation. The Resample to Image
filter can
be used to convert any dataset to Image data before performing such operations.
5.8.7. Probe
Probe
samples the input dataset at a specific point location to obtain the
cell data attributes for the cell containing the point as well as the interpolated point
data attributes. You can either use the SpreadSheet View
or the
Information
panel to inspect the probed values. The probe location can be
specified using the interactive 3D widget shown in the active Render View
.
5.8.8. Plot over line
Plot Over Line
will sample the input dataset along the specified line and
then plot the results in Line Chart View
. Internally, this filter uses the
same mechanism as the Probe
filter, probing along the points in the
line to get the containing cell attributes and interpolated point attributes.
Using the Resolution
property on the Properties
panel, you can control
the number of sample points along the line.
5.9. Filters for attribute manipulation
The filters covered in this section are used to add new attribute arrays to the dataset, which are typically used to add derived quantities to use in pipelines for further processing.
5.9.1. Calculator
The Calculator
filter computes a new data array or new point coordinates as a
function of existing input arrays. If pointcentered arrays are used
in the computation of a new data array, the resulting array will also be
pointcentered. Similarly, computations using cellcentered arrays will produce
a new cellcentered array. If the function is computing point coordinates
(requested by checking the Coordinate Results
property on the
Properties
panel) , the
result of the function must be a threecomponent vector. The Calculator
interface operates similarly to a scientific calculator. In creating the
function to evaluate, the standard order of operations applies. Each of the
calculator functions is described below. Unless otherwise noted, enclose the
operand in parentheses using the (
and )
buttons.
Clear
: Erase the current function./
: Divide one scalar by another. The operands for this function are not required to be enclosed in parentheses.*
: Multiply two scalars, or multiply a vector by a scalar (scalar multiple). The operands for this function are not required to be enclosed in parentheses.
: Negate a scalar or vector (unary minus), or subtract one scalar or vector from another. The operands for this function are not required to be enclosed in parentheses.+
: Add two scalars or two vectors. The operands for this function are not required to be enclosed in parentheses.iHat
,jHat
, andkHat
are vector constants representing unit vectors in the X, Y, and Z directions, respectively.sin(x)
: Compute the sine of a scalar.cos(x)
: Compute the cosine of a scalar.tan(x)
: Compute the tangent of a scalar.abs(x)
: Compute the absolute value of a scalar.sqrt(x)
: Compute the square root of a scalar.asin(x)
: Compute the arcsine of a scalar.acos(x)
: Compute the arccosine of a scalar.atan(x)
: Compute the arctangent of a scalar.ceil(x)
: Compute the ceiling of a scalar.floor(x)
: Compute the floor of a scalar.sinh(x)
: Compute the hyperbolic sine of a scalar.cosh(x)
: Compute the hyperbolic cosine of a scalar.tanh(x)
: Compute the hyperbolic tangent of a scalar.x^y
: Raise one scalar to the power of another scalar. The operands for this function are not required to be enclosed in parentheses.exp(x)
Raise \(e`\) to the power of a scalar.dot(x, y)
: Compute the dot product of two vectors x and y.mag(x)
: Compute the magnitude of a vector.norm(x)
: Normalize a vector. The operands are described below. The digits 09 and the decimal point are used to enter constant scalar values.ln(x)
: Compute the logarithm of a scalar to the base \(e\).log10(x)
: Compute the logarithm of a scalar to the base 10.
Additional operations are available in the Calculator
filter that do not have buttons in the user interface, including:
avg(x, y, z, ...)
: Average of all the input arguments.clamp(r0, x, r1)
: Clamp x in range between r0 and r1.cross(x, y)
: Compute cross product of two vectors x and y.equal(x, y)
: Equality test between x and y using normalized epsilon.erf(x)
: Error function of x.erfc(x)
: Complimentary error function of x.frac(x)
: Fractional portion of x.hypot(x, y)
: Hypotenuse of x and y, equivalent ofsqrt(x*x + y*y)
.iclamp(r0, x, r1)
: Inverseclamp x outside of the range r0 and r1. If x is within the range it will snap to the closest bound.inrange(r0, x, r1)
: Returns true when x is within the range r0 and r1.log1p(x)
: Natural logarithm of 1 + x, where x is very small.log2(x)
: Base 2 logarithm of x.logn(x, n)
: Base N logarithm of x where n is a positive integer.min(x, y)
: Compute minimum of two scalars.max(x, y)
: Compute maximum of two scalars.mul(z, y, z, ...)
: Multiply all the inputs together.ncdf(x)
: Normal cumulative distribution function.not_equal(x, y)
: Notequal test between x and y using normalised epsilon.pow(x, y)
: x to the power of y.root(x, n)
: nthroot of x where n is a positive integer.round(x)
: Round x to the nearest integerroundn(x, n)
: Round x to n decimal places.sgn(x)
: Compute the sign of x: 1 where x < 0, +1 where x > 0, and 0 otherwise.sum(x, y, z, ...)
: Sum of all the inputs.trunc(x)
: Integer portion of x.acosh(x)
: Inverse hyperbolic cosine of x expressed in radians.asinh(x)
: Inverse hyperbolic sine of x expressed in radians.atan2(x, y)
: Arc tangent of (x / y) expressed in radians.atanh(x)
: Inverse hyperbolic tangent of x expressed in radians.cot(x)
: Cotangent of x.csc(x)
: Cosecant of x.sec(x)
: Secant of x.sinc(x)
: Cardinal sine of x.deg2rad(x)
: Convert x from degrees to radians.deg2grad(x)
: Convert x from degrees to gradians.rad2deg(x)
: Convert x from radians to degrees.grad2deg(x)
: Convert x from gradians to degrees.
The following equalities and inequalities are available:
==
or=
: True only if x is strictly equal to y.<>
or!=
: True only if x does not equal y.<
: True only if x is less than y.<=
: True only if x is less than or equal to y.>
: True only if x is greater than y.>=
: True only if x is greater than or equal to y.
The following conditionals and boolean operators are available:
if(x, y, z)
: If x evaluates to true, then y, otherwise z.true
: True state.false
: False state.x and y
: Logical and, true only if x and y are both true.mand(x, y, z, ...)
: Multiinput logical and, true only if all arguments are true.mor(x, y, z, ...)
: Multiinput logical or, true if any arguments are true.x nand y
: Logical nand, true only if either x or y is false.x nor y
: Logical nor, true only if neither x or y is false.not x
: Logical not, evaluate to the opposite of the input boolean value.x or y
: Logical or, true if either x or y is true.x xor y
: Logical xor, true only if the logical state of x or y are different.x xnor y
: True if and only if both logical inputs are the same.
The Scalars
menu lists the names of the scalar arrays and the components of
the vector arrays of either the pointcentered or
cellcentered data. The Vectors
menu lists the names of the pointcentered or
cellcentered vector arrays. The function will be computed for each point (or
cell) using the scalar or vector value of the array at that point (or cell). The
filter operates on any type of dataset, but the input dataset must have at
least one scalar or vector array. The arrays can be either pointcentered or
cellcentered. The Calculator
filter’s output is of the same dataset type as
the input.
Did you know?
It used to be a common usecase for the Calculator
filter to convert three input
scalars into a vector array. For that, the Function
would look something like:
\(scalar_x * iHat + scalar_y * jHat + scalar_z * kHat\).
Now, the Merge Vector Components filter provides a simpler way to do this by simply selecting the three scalars to combine into a vector array.
The Properties
panel provides access to several options for this filter.
Checking Coordinate Results
, Result Normals
, or Result TCoords
will set the computed array as the point coordinates, normals, or texture
coordinates, respectively. Result Array Name
is used to specify a name for
the computed array. The default is Result
.
Sometimes, the expression can yield invalid values. To replace all invalid
values with a specific value, check the Replace Invalid Results
checkbox and
then enter the value to use to replace invalid values using the
Replacement Value
. The output array data type is set with the Result Array Type
property.
To ease the reuse of expressions, three helper buttons are also present to load an expression,
save the current one and inspect the list of already saved expressions from the Expression Manager
.
5.9.2. Expression Manager
ParaView provides an Expression Manager
to ease the expression property configuration
by storing expressions, and giving quick access to them. Each expression can be named
and has an associated group so it is easy to filter Python expressions from others.
This feature comes in two parts:
From the Property Panel
, the oneline property text entry is augmented with:
a drop down list to access existing expressions
a
Save Current Expression
buttona shortcut to the
Choose Expression
dialog
The Choose Expression
dialog, also accessible from the Tools > Manage Expressions menu item, is an editable and searchable list of the stored expressions. ParaView keeps track of them through the settings, but they can also be exported to a JSON file for backup and sharing.
5.9.3. Python calculator
The Python Calculator
is similar to Calculator
in that
it processes one or more input arrays based on an expression provided by the
user to produce a new output array. However, it uses Python (and
NumPy) to do the computation. Therefore, it provides more expressive
computational capabilities.
Specify whether to Use Multiline Expression
, the Expression
to use,
the Array Association
to indicate the array association (Point Data
,
Cell Data
, or Field Data
), the name of output array (Array Name
),
a toggle that controls whether the input arrays are copied to the output
(Copy Array
), and a Result Array Type
to specify the type of output
data array to store the calculated results in.
The Python Calculator
also integrated the Expression Manager
described in Section 5.9.2.
5.9.3.1. Basic tutorial
Start by creating a Sphere source and applying the Python Calculator
to it. As
the first expression, use the following and apply:
5
This should create an array name result in the output point data. Note that this is an array that has a value of 5 for each point. When the expression results in a single value, the calculator will automatically make a constant array. Next, try the following:
Normals
Now, the result array should be the same as the input array Normals. As described in detail later, various functions are available through the calculator. For example, the following is a valid expression:
sin(Normals) + 5
It is very important to note that the Python Calculator
has to produce one value
per point or cell depending on the Array Association parameter. Most of the
functions described here apply individually to all point or cell values and
produce an array the same dimensions as the input. However, some of them, such
as min()
and max()
, produce single values.
Common Errors
In the Programmable Filter
, all the functions in
vtk.numpy_interface.algorithms
are imported prior to executing the script.
As a result, some builtin functions, such as min
and max
, are
clobbered by that import. To use the builtin functions, import the import __builtin__
module and access those functions with, e.g.,
__builtin__.min
and __builtin__.max
5.9.3.2. Accessing data
There are several ways of accessing input arrays within expressions. The simplest way is to access it by name:
sin(Normals) + 5
This is equivalent to:
sin(inputs[0].PointData['Normals']) + 5
The example above requires some explanation. Here, inputs[0]
refer to the
first input (dataset) to the filter. Python Calculator
can accept multiple
inputs. Each input can be accessed as inputs[0]
, inputs[1]
, … You
can access the point or cell data of an input using the .PointData
or
.CellData
qualifiers. You can then access individual arrays within the
point or cell data containers using the []
operator. Make sure to use
quotes or doublequotes around the array name. Arrays that have names with
certain characters (such as space, +, , *, /) can only be accessed using this
method.
Certain functions apply directly on the input mesh. These filters expect an input dataset as argument. For example,
area(inputs[0])
For data types that explicitly define the point coordinates, you can access the
coordinates array using the .Points
qualifier. The following extracts the
first component of the coordinates array:
inputs[0].Points[:,0]
Note that for certain data types, mainly image data (uniform rectilinear grids) and rectilinear grids, point coordinates are defined implicitly and cannot be accessed as an array.
5.9.3.3. Comparing multiple datasets
The Python Calculator
can be used to compare multiple datasets, as shown by
the following example.
Go to the Menu Bar, and select Edit > Reset Session to clear the Pipeline.
Select Source > Mandelbrot, and then click Apply, which will set up a default version of the Mandelbrot Set. The data for this set are stored in a \(251 \times 251\) scalar array.
Select Source > Mandelbrot again, and then go to the
Properties
panel and set the Maximum Number of Iterations to 50. ClickApply
, which will set up a different version of the Mandelbrot Set, represented by the same size array.Hold the Shift key down and select both of the Mandelbrot entries in the Pipeline Inspector, and then go to the Menu Bar, and select Filter > Python Calculator. The two Mandelbrot entries will now be shown as linked, as inputs, to the
Python Calculator
.In the Properties panel for the Python Calculator filter, enter the following into the Expression box:
inputs[1].PointData['Iterations']  inputs[0].PointData['Iterations']
This expression specifies the difference between the second and the first Mandelbrot arrays. The result is saved in a new array called
results
. The prefixes in the names for the array variables,inputs[1]
andinputs[0]
, refer to the first and second Mandelbrot entries, respectively, in the Pipeline.PointData
specifies that the inputs contain point values. The quoted label'Iterations'
is the local name for these arrays. ClickApply
to initiate the calculation.
Click the Display
tab in the Properties Panel
for the Python Calculator
,
and go to the first tab to the right of the Color by label. Select the
item results in that tab, which will cause the display window to the right to
show the results of the expression we entered in the Python Calculator
. The
scalar values representing the difference between the two Mandelbrot arrays are
represented by colors that are set by the current color map (click the Edit
button to open a detailed editor for the current color map).
There are a few things to note:
Python Calculator
will always copy the mesh from the first input to its output.All operations are applied pointbypoint. In most cases, this requires that the input meshes (topology and geometry) are the same. At the least, it requires that the inputs have the same number of points and cells.
In parallel execution mode, the inputs have to be distributed exactly the same way across processes.
5.9.3.4. Basic Operations
The Python Calculator
supports all of the basic arithmetic operations using the
\(+\), \(\), \(*\) and \(/\) operators. These are always applied elementbyelement to
point and cell data including scalars, vectors, and tensors. These operations
also work with single values. For example, the following adds 5 to all
components of all Normals.
Normals + 5
The following adds 1 to the first component, 2 to the second component, and 3 to the third component:
Normals + [1,2,3]
This is specially useful when mixing functions that return single values. For example, the following normalizes the Normals array:
(Normals  min(Normals))/(max(Normals)  min(Normals))
A common use case in a calculator is to work on one component of an array. This can be accomplished with the following:
Normals[:, 0]
The expression above extracts the first component of the Normals vector. Here,
:
is a placeholder for “all elements”. One element can be extracted by replacing
:
with an index. For example, the following creates a constant array from the
first component of the normal of the first point:
Normals[0, 0]
Alternatively, the following assigns the normal of the first point to all points:
Normals[0, :]
It is also possible to create a vector array from two or three scalar arrays using the make_vector()
function:
make_vector(velocity_x, velocity_y, velocity_z)
For temporal datasets, you also have access to the dataset timestep index or time value
in the expression as t_index
or time_index
, and t_value
or time_value
respectively. When dealing with multiple inputs, you can specify the same variable names scoped on the
appropriate input e.g. inputs[0].t_index
.
The locations of points are available in the Points
variable for datasets that define explicit points positions.
In some datasets, field data is used to store global data values not associated with cells or points.
To use field data in a Python Calculator
expression, access it with the FieldData
dictionary
available in the input as in the following example:
VolumeOfCell * inputs[0].FieldData['MaterialData'][time_index]
Did you know?
Under the cover, the Python Calculator
uses NumPy. All arrays in the
expression are compatible with NumPy arrays and can be used where NumPy arrays
can be used. For more information on what you can do with these arrays, consult
with the NumPy references [NumPydevelopers].
5.9.3.5. Functions
The following is a list of functions available in the Python Calculator
.
Note that this is a partial list, since most of the NumPy and SciPy functions
can be used in the Python Calculator
. Many of these functions can take
single values or arrays as argument.
abs(x)
: Returns the absolute value(s) of \(x\).add(x, y)
: Returns the sum of two values. \(x\) and \(y\) can be single values or arrays. This is the same as \(x+y\).area(dataset)
: Returns the surface area of each cell in a mesh.aspect(dataset)
: Returns the aspect ratio of each cell in a mesh.aspect_gamma(dataset)
: Returns the aspect ratio gamma of each cell in a mesh.condition(dataset)
: Returns the condition number of each cell in a mesh.cross(x, y)
: Returns the cross product for two 3D vectors from two arrays of 3D vectors.curl(array)
: Returns the curl of an array of 3D vectors.divergence(array)
: Returns the divergence of an array of 3D vectors.divide(x, y)
: Elementbyelement division. \(x\) and \(y\) can be single values or arrays. This is the same as math:frac{x}{y}.det(array)
: Returns the determinant of an array of 2D square matrices.determinant(array)
: Returns the determinant of an array of 2D square matrices.diagonal(dataset)
: Returns the diagonal length of each cell in a dataset.dot(a1, a2)
: Returns the dot product of two scalars/vectors of two array of scalars/vectors.eigenvalue(array)
: Returns the eigenvalue of an array of 2D square matrices.eigenvector(array)
: Returns the eigenvector of an array of 2D square matrices.exp(x)
: Returns \(e^x\).gradient(array)
: Returns the gradient of an array of scalars or vectors.inv(array)
: Returns the inverse an array of 2D square matrices.inverse(array)
: Returns the inverse of an array of 2D square matrices.jacobian(dataset)
: Returns the jacobian of an array of 2D square matrices.laplacian(array)
: Returns the jacobian of an array of scalars.ln(array)
: Returns the natural logarithm of an array of scalars/vectors/tensors.log(array)
: Returns the natural logarithm of an array of scalars/vectors/tensors.log10(array)
: Returns the base 10 logarithm of an array of scalars/vectors/tensors.make_point_mask_from_NaNs(dataset, array)
: This function will create a ghost array corresponding to an input with NaN values. For each NaN value, the output array will have a corresponding value ofvtk.vtkDataSetAttributes.HIDDENPOINT
. These values are also combined with any ghost values that the dataset may have.make_cell_mask_from_NaNs(dataset, array)
: This function will create a ghost array corresponding to an input with NaN values. For each NaN value, the output array will have a corresponding value ofvtk.vtkDataSetAttributes.HIDDENCELL
. These values are also combined with any ghost values that the dataset may have.max(array)
: Returns the maximum value of the array as a single value. In parallel, compute the max accross processes.max_angle(dataset)
: Returns the maximum angle of each cell in a dataset.mag(a)
: Returns the magnitude of an array of scalars/vectors.mean(array)
: Returns the mean value of an array of scalars/vectors/tensors. In parallel, compute the mean accross processes.min(array)
: Returns the minimum value of the array as a single value. In parallel, compute the min accorss processes.min_angle(dataset)
: Returns the minimum angle of each cell in a dataset.mod(x, y)
: Same as remainder \((x, y)\).multiply(x, y)
: Returns the product of \(x\) and \(y\). \(x\) and \(y\) can be single values or arrays. Note that this is an elementbyelement operation when \(x\) and \(y\) are both arrays. This is the same as \(x \times y\).negative(x)
: Same as \(x\).norm(a)
: Returns the normalized values of an array of scalars/vectors.power(x, a)
: Exponentiation of \(x\) with \(a\). Here, both \(x\) and \(a\) can either be a single value or an array. If \(x\) and \(y\) are both arrays, a onebyone mapping is used between two arrays.reciprocal(x)
: Returns \(\frac{1}{x}\).remainder(x, y)
: Returns \(x  y \times floor(\frac{x}{y})\). \(x\) and \(y\) can be single values or arrays.rint(x)
: Rounds \(x\) to the nearest integer(s).shear(dataset)
: Returns the shear of each cell in a dataset.skew(dataset)
: Returns the skew of each cell in a dataset.square(x)
: Returns \(x*x\).sqrt(x)
: Returns \(\sqrt[2]{x}\).strain(array)
: Returns the strain of an array of 3D vectors.subtract(x, y)
: Returns the difference between two values. \(x\) and y can be single values or arrays. This is the same as \(x  y\).surface_normal(dataset)
: Returns the surface normal of each cell in a dataset.trace(array)
: Returns the trace of an array of 2D square matrices.volume(dataset)
: Returns the volume normal of each cell in a dataset.vorticity(array)
: Returns the vorticity/curl of an array of 3D vectors.vertex_normal(dataset)
: Returns the vertex normal of each point in a dataset.
5.9.3.6. Trigonometric Functions
Below is a list of supported trigonometric functions:















5.9.4. Gradient
The Gradient
filter computes the gradient of a cell or point data array for
any type of dataset.
For unstructured grids, the gradient for cell data corresponds to the cell derivatives. For point data, the gradient at a given point is computed as the average of the derivatives of the cells to which the point belongs.
For structured grids, the gradient is computed using central differencing, except on the boundary of the dataset where forward and backward differencing is used for the boundary elements.
This filter can optionally compute the divergence, vorticity (also known as the curl), and Qcriterion. A 3component array is required in order to compute these quantities. By default, only the gradient computation is enabled.
In the case of a uniform rectilinear grid (see Section 3.1.3),
a specific implementation which efficiently computes the gradient of point data arrays
is also available. This implementation extends the use of central differencing
on the boundary elements after duplication of the boundary values. To activate
this option, set the Boundary Method
property to Smoothed
, as shown in
Fig. 5.28.
5.9.5. Mesh Quality
The Mesh Quality
filter creates a new cell array containing a geometric
measure of each cell’s fitness. Different quality measures can be chosen for
different cell shapes.
Triangle Quality
indicates which quality measure will be used to evaluate
triangle quality. The Radius Ratio
is the size of a circle circumscribed by a
triangle’s three vertices divided by the size of a circle tangent to a triangle’s three
edges. The Edge Ratio
is the ratio of the longest edge length to the shortest
edge length.
Quad Quality
indicates which quality measure will be used to evaluate
quad cells.
Tet Quality
indicates which quality measure will be used to evaluate
tetrahedral quality. The Radius Ratio
is the size of a sphere circumscribed by a
tetrahedron’s four vertices divided by the size of a circle tangent to a
tetrahedron’s four faces. The Edge Ratio
is the ratio of the longest edge length to
the shortest edge length. The Collapse Ratio
is the minimum ratio of height of a
vertex above the triangle opposite it, divided by the longest edge of the
opposing triangle across all vertex/triangle pairs.
HexQualityMeasure
indicates which quality measure will be used to evaluate
quality of hexahedral cells.
5.10. Whitebox filters
This includes the Programmable Filter
and Programmable Source
. For
these filters/sources, you can add Python code to do the data generation or
processing. We’ll cover writing Python code for these in
Section 5.
5.11. Favorite filters
If you use some filters more than others, you can organize them in the Filters > Favorites menu.
This can be done from the context menu in the pipeline or through the Filters > Manage Favorites
menu as shown in Fig. 5.29. In this dialog you can create categories and
subcategories. It supports drag’n’drop operation to sort and move filters and categories.
Moreover, Favorites
are highlighted in the other filter submenus on supported platforms.
Favorites are saved in user settings so they can be used in other subsequent ParaView sessions.
5.12. Best practices
5.12.1. Avoiding data explosion
The pipeline model that ParaView presents is very convenient for exploratory visualization. The loose coupling between components provides a very flexible framework for building unique visualizations, and the pipeline structure allows you to tweak parameters quickly and easily.
The downside of this coupling is that it can have a larger memory footprint. Each stage of this pipeline maintains its own copy of the data. Whenever possible, ParaView performs shallow copies of the data so that different stages of the pipeline point to the same block of data in memory. However, any filter that creates new data or changes the values or topology of the data must allocate new memory for the result. If ParaView is filtering a very large mesh, inappropriate use of filters can quickly deplete all available memory. Therefore, when visualizing large datasets, it is important to understand the memory requirements of filters.
Please keep in mind that the following advice is intended only for when dealing with very large amounts of data and the remaining available memory is low. When you are not in danger of running out of memory, the following advice is not relevant.
When dealing with structured data, it is absolutely important to know what filters will change the data to unstructured. Unstructured data has a much higher memory footprint, per cell, than structured data because the topology must be explicitly written out. There are many filters in ParaView that will change the topology in some way, and these filters will write out the data as an unstructured grid, because that is the only dataset that will handle any type of topology that is generated. The following list of filters will write out a new unstructured topology in its output that is roughly equivalent to the input. These filters should never be used with structured data and should be used with caution on unstructured data.
Append Datasets 
Extract Edges 
Subdivide 
Append Geometry 
Linear Extrusion 
Tessellate 
Clean 
Loop Subdivision 
Tetrahedralize 
Clean to Grid 
Reflect 
Triangle Strips 
Connectivity 
Rotational Extrusion 
Triangulate 
D3 
Shrink 

Delaunay 2D/3D 
Smooth 
Technically, the Ribbon
and Tube
filters should fall into this list.
However, as they only work on 1D cells in poly data, the input data is usually
small and of little concern.
This similar set of filters also outputs unstructured grids, but also tends to reduce some of this data. Be aware though that this data reduction is often smaller than the overhead of converting to unstructured data. Also note that the reduction is often not well balanced. It is possible (often likely) that a single process may not lose any cells. Thus, these filters should be used with caution on unstructured data and extreme caution on structured data.
Clip 
Extract Selection 
Decimate 
Quadric Clustering 
Extract Cells by Region 
Threshold 
Similar to the items in the preceding list, Extract Subset
performs data
reduction on a structured dataset, but also outputs a structured dataset. So the
warning about creating new data still applies, but you do not have to worry
about converting to an unstructured grid.
This next set of filters also outputs unstructured data, but it also performs a reduction on the dimension of the data (for example 3D to 2D), which results in a much smaller output. Thus, these filters are usually safe to use with unstructured data and require only mild caution with structured data.
Cell Centers 
Mask Points 
Contour 
Outline Curvilinear DataSet 
Extract CTH Parts 
Slice 
Extract Surface 
Stream Tracer 
Feature Edges 
The filters below do not change the connectivity of the data at all. Instead, they only add field arrays to the data. All the existing data is shallow copied. These filters are usually safe to use on all data.
Block Scalars 
Point Data to Cell Data 
Calculator 
Process Id Scalars 
Cell Data to Point Data 
Random Vectors 
Curvature 
Resample with Dataset 
Elevation 
Surface Flow 
Generate Surface Normals 
Surface Vectors 
Gradient 
Texture Map to… 
Level Scalars 
Transform 
Median 
Warp By Scalar 
Mesh Quality 
Warp By Vector 
This final set of filters either add no data to the output (all data of consequence is shallow copied) or the data they add is generally independent of the size of the input. These are almost always safe to add under any circumstances (although they may take a lot of time).
Annotate Time 
Outline Corners 
Append Attributes 
Plot Global Variables Over Time 
Extract Block 
Plot Over Line 
Glyph 
Plot Selection Over Time 
Group Datasets 
Probe Location 
Histogram 
Temporal Shift Scale 
Integrate Variables 
Temporal SnaptoTimeSteps 
Normal Glyphs 
Temporal Statistics 
Outline 
There are a few special case filters that do not fit well into any of the
previous classes. Some of the filters, currently Temporal Interpolator
and
Particle Tracer
, perform calculations based on how data changes over time.
Thus, these filters may need to load data for two or more instances of time,
which can double or more the amount of data needed in memory. The Temporal
Cache
filter will also hold data for multiple instances of time. Keep in mind
that some of the temporal filters such as the Temporal Statistics and the
filters that plot over time may need to iteratively load all data from disk.
Thus, it may take an impractically long amount of time even if does not require
any extra memory.
The Programmable Filter
is also a special case that is impossible to
classify. Since this filter does whatever it is programmed to do, it can fall
into any one of these categories.
5.12.2. Culling data
When dealing with large data, it is best to cull out data whenever possible and do so as early as possible. Most large data starts as 3D geometry and the desired geometry is often a surface. As surfaces usually have a much smaller memory footprint than the volumes that they are derived from, it is best to convert to a surface early on. Once you do that, you can apply other filters in relative safety.
A very common visualization operation is to extract isosurfaces from a volume
using the Contour filter. The Contour
filter usually outputs geometry much
smaller than its input. Thus, the Contour
filter should be applied early if
it is to be used at all. Be careful when setting up the parameters to the
Contour
filter because it still is possible for it to generate a lot of
data which can happen if you specify many isosurface values. High frequencies
such as noise around an isosurface value can also cause a large, irregular
surface to form.
Another way to peer inside of a volume is to perform a Slice
on it. The
Slice
filter will intersect a volume with a plane and allow you to see the
data in the volume where the plane intersects. If you know the relative location
of an interesting feature in your large dataset, slicing is a good way to view
it.
If you have little a priori knowledge of your data and would like to
explore the data without the long memory and processing time for the full
dataset, you can use the Extract Subset
filter to subsample the data. The
subsampled data can be dramatically smaller than the original data and should
still be well load balanced. Of course, be aware that you may miss small
features if the subsampling steps over them and that once you find a feature you
should go back and visualize it with the full dataset.
There are also several features that can pull out a subset of a volume:
Clip
, Threshold
, Extract Selection
, and Extract Subset
can
all extract cells based on some criterion. Be aware, however, that the extracted
cells are almost never well balanced; expect some processes to have no cells
removed. All of these filters, with the exception of Extract Subset
, will
convert structured data types to unstructured grids. Therefore, they should not
be used unless the extracted cells are of at least an order of magnitude less
than the source data.
When possible, replace the use of a filter that extracts 3D data with one that
will extract 2D surfaces. For example, if you are interested in a plane through
the data, use the Slice
filter rather than the Clip
filter. If you are
interested in knowing the location of a region of cells containing a particular
range of values, consider using the Contour
filter to generate surfaces at
the ends of the range rather than extract all of the cells with the
Threshold
filter. Be aware that substituting filters can have an effect on
downstream filters. For example, running the Histogram
filter after
Threshold
will have an entirely different effect than running it after the
roughly equivalent Contour
filter.